Decision Rules for classes

 

Classification system key for remote sensing and ground data gathering.

Classes identified statewide with Landsat satellite imagery classification are underlined

 

Non-Forested Types

If land area > or =10% covered with manmade structures including roads, parking lots, and gravel roads then Urban -1

If land area > or =25% solid impervious cover from man-made materials then

High Intensity Urban -12

If within an airport ground/runways then Airport - 121

If on road or parking lot then Road/Parking Lot - 122

Else Other High Intensity Urban - 123

Else Low Intensity Urban - 11

 

Else if land area has > or = 75% open water then

Water - 50

 

Else if vegetation intensively managed for vegetation production excluding forestry then

Agriculture -2

 

If < 25% of the vegetation is woody then Herbaceous Agriculture -21

If area is tilled for crop production then Cropland -211

If < 25% of land area is vegetated then Non-vegetated Farmland - 2111

If vegetation is annual crops, planted in rows (e.g. corn, soybeans etc) then

Row Crops - 2112

Else if vegetation is used for fodder production, alfalfa and hay

Forage Crops - 2113

Else Other Cropland -2114

Else if vegetation is not tilled (includes pasture) Non-tilled Herbaceous Agriculture -212

Else Non Herbaceous Agriculture

If woody trees are grown for Xmas tree production then Xmas trees - 221

Else Orchards/Vineyards/Nursery - 222

 

Else if ground area is < 25% vegetated then

Bare / Sparsely Vegetated (1)

Else if formed from sand or bare soil Sand, Soil - 710

Else if formed from solid rock then Exposed Rock 720

Else if periodically flooded Mud Flats - 730

Else if on forest lands then Non-stocked Forest - 760

Else Other Bare/Sparsely Vegetated - 790

 

If No evidence of flooding during past 5 years And Not supporting lowland indicator plants

Upland

if < 25% of the ground is covered by tree canopy

Upland Openland -3

If maintained for recreational purposes then

Parks and Golf Courses - 350

If > 15% of the ground is covered by tree canopy then

Low-Density Trees - 330

If > or = 60% tree canopy Deciduous spp. then Low Density Deciduous Trees -3301

Else if > or = 60% tree canopy Coniferous spp. then Low Density Conifer Trees -3302

Else Mixed Low Density Trees -3303

Else If combination of woody shrubs and trees totals more than 25% of the land area

Upland Shrub - 320

If > or = 25% the ground is covered by sweet fern then Sweet Fern 3201

If > 50% of the ground is covered by autumn olive/honeysuckle then

Autumn Olive/Honeysuckle -3202

Else if > or = 50% of the ground is covered by blueberry then

Upland Blueberry -3203

Else if > or = 25% of the ground is covered by mast producing shrubs (cherry spp., juneberry, hazel,dogwood,hawthorn,wild plum) then

Mast Producing Shrub -3204

Else Mixed Upland Shrub -3205

Else if < = 25 % canopy is woody shrubs/trees then

Herbaceous Openland - 310

If > or = 60% ground cover is poverty grass, sweet fern, blueberry cladonia

then (Open Barrens) Poverty Grass, Cladonia -3101

Else if > or = 60% herbaceous cover is grass then Grass -3102

Else if > 60% herbaceous cover is cool season grass/legume (orchard grass, fescue, timothy, clover, vetch) then Cool Season Grass -31021

Else Warm Season Grass -31022

Else if > or = 60% herbaceous cover is bracken fern, strawberry or raspberry/blackberry then Rubus-Fern -3103

Else if > 60% ground cover exposed gravel/sand, spotted knapweed, St. Johnswort, or other invasive exotics, then Degraded -3104

Else Mixed Upland Herbaceous -3105

 

If Evidence of flooding during past 5 years or supporting lowland indicator plants

Lowland

 

if < 25% of the ground is covered by tree canopy

Non-forested wetland -62

 

If > or =60% non-water ground cover is floating aquatic vegetation then

Floating Aquatic - 621

 

Else if > or =60% non-water ground cover is shrub then

Lowland Shrub - 622

Else if > or = 60% Alder (Alnus), Willow (Salix) then Alder/willow -6220

Else if > or =60% Shrubby cinquefoil (Potentilla fruticosa), Dogwood (Cornus), Willow (Salix), Sedge (Carex) and/or Sphagnum/Peat moss (Sphagnum) then Fen -6221

Else if > or =30% is Dogwood (Cornus), Michigan Holly (Illex verticillata) then

Shrub-Carr -6222

If > or =30% is Button bush (Cepalanthus), Water Plantain (Alisma), Smartweed (Polygonum), Cattail (Typha) then Inundated Shrub Swamp -6223

Else if > or =30% evergreen shrubs, Sphagnum/Peat moss (Sphagnum) then Bog

If > or = 10% trees then Treed Bog -6224

Else Bog -6225

Else Mixed lowland shrub -6229

 

Else If > or =60% non-water ground cover is non-woody vegetation then

Emergent Wetland-623

If > or =60% Cattail (Typha spp.) then Cattail -6230

Else if > or =60% Phragmites then Phragmites -6231

Else if > or =30% native warm season grasses including Big bluestem, Little bluestem, Broom sedge (Andropogon spp.); Indian grass (Sorgastrum nutans) then Wet Prairie -6232

Else if > or =60% sedges and grasses including Sedge (Carex), Bulrush (Scirpus), Reed grass (Calamagrostis), Reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinaceae), native warm season grasses (see above), then Wet Meadow -6233

Else Mixed Emergent Wetland -6239

 

Else Mixed non-forested wetland 629


Key for the classification of forest types

 

Species names have been abbreviated, with subscripts indicating species, where no subscript is indicated it means that all species are included in the calculation.

 

Species Codes

Ab Big Tooth Aspen

Aq Quaking Aspen

Asb Black Ash

Asw White Ash

Asg Green Ash

Ba Basswood

Be Beech

Biy Yellow Birch

Bip Paper Birch

Ce Cedar

Ch Cherry

Co Cottonwood

Fb Balsam Fir

H Hemlock

L Larch

Mr Red Maple

Ms Sugar Maple

Op Northern Pin Oak

Or Red Oak

Ow White Oak

Ob Black Oak

Pj Jack Pine

Pr Red Pine

Ps Scotch Pine

Pw White Pine

Pob Balsam Poplar

Sb Black Spruce

Sw White Spruce

T Tamarack

Other species have been given their full name

Key

 

Else if > or = 25% of ground covered by tree crowns Forest

If No evidence of flooding during past 5 years And Not supporting lowland indicator plants Upland Forest

| If > or = 60% of the tree canopy is deciduous then Upland Deciduous Forest

| | If > or = 60% (M + Be + Ba + Asw + Ch + Biy) then Northern Hardwood - 411

| | | If > or = 80% (Ms + Ba + Asw + Ch) then Sugar Maple Association

| | | Else if > or =60% (Ms + Ba) and >= 10% (Be + O) then

S. Maple, Hard Mast Association

| | | Else if > or = 80% (M + Be + Ch) then Maple, Beech, Cherry Association

| | | Else if > or = 60% (Be + H) then Beech, Hemlock

| | | Else if > or = 20% (Biy + H) then Y. Birch, Hemlock NH

| | | Else if > or = 50% Mr and > or = 20% Conifer then

R.Maple, Conifer

| | | Else if > or = 20% (P) then Mixed N. Hardwood Pine

| | | Else if > or = 20% (A) then Mixed N. Hardwood Aspen

| | | Else Mixed Northern Hardwoods

| | Else if > or = 60% O then Oak Type - 412

| | | If > or =15% Hickory then Oak, Hickory

| | | Else if > or = 30% Pine then Oak, Pine

| | | Else if > or = 30% Aspen then Oak, Aspen

| | | Else if > or = 40% (Or) then Red Oak types

| | | | If > or = 20% Ow then Red with White Oak

| | | Else Red Oak

| | | Else if > or =40% (Op + Ow + Ob) then Other Oaks

| | | | If > or = 20% Ow then White, Black, N. Pin Oak

| | | | Else Black, N. Pin Oak

| | | Else Mixed Oak

| | Else if > or = 40% (A) then Aspen Type - 413

| | | If > or = 20% Conifer then Aspen, Conifer

| | | | If > or = 20% (C) then Aspen, Cedar

| | | | Else if > or = 20% (S) or (F) then Aspen, Spruce/Fir

| | | | Else if > or = 20% (P) then Aspen, Pine

| | | | If Pj > or = (Pw + Pr) then Aspen, Jack Pine

| | | | Else Aspen Mixed Pine

| | | | Else Aspen, Mixed Conifer

| | | Else if > or = 20% (O) then Aspen, Oak

| | | Else If > or = 60% (A) then Aspen

| | | Else if > or = 20% (Bi) then Aspen, Birch

| | | Else Aspen, Mixed Deciduous

| | Else if any other single species > or =60% then Other Upland Deciduous (e.g. Birch) - 414

| | Else Mixed Upland Deciduous - 419

| | | If > or = 20% Ce then Mixed Upland Deciduous with Cedar

| | | Else if > or = 20% Conifer then Mixed Upland Deciduous with Conifer

| | | Else if > or = 60% (A + Bi) then Birch, Aspen.

| | | Else if > or = 40% Tulip Poplar + Black Walnut + Hackberry + Sycamore

| | | | then Mixed Southern Upland Deciduous

| | | |Else Other Mixed Upland Deciduous

| If > or = 60% of the tree canopy is coniferous then Upland Coniferous Forest

| | If > or = 60% Pines then Pines 42(1,2)

| | | If Plantation then Planted

| | | | If > or = 60% Pw then Planted White Pine

| | | If > or = 20% Deciduous then Planted White Pine, Mixed Deciduous

| | | | Else Planted White Pine

| | | | Else if > or = 60% Pr then Planted Red Pine

| | | If > or = 20% Deciduous then Planted Red Pine, Mixed Deciduous

| | | | Else Planted Red Pine

| | | | Else if > or = 60% Pj then Planted Jack Pine

| | | If > or = 20% Deciduous then Planted Jack Pine, Mixed Deciduous

| | | | Else Planted Jack Pine

| | | | Else if > or = 60% Ps then Planted Scotch Pine

| | | | Else if > or = 60% P and strip planted then Strip Planted Pine

| | | | Else if > or = 60% P then Planted Mixed Pines

| | | | If > or = 20% Deciduous then Planted Mixed Pine, Mixed Deciduous

| | | | Else Planted Mixed Pine

| | | Else Non-planted

| | | | If > 30% O then Pine - Oak

| | | | If > or = 60% Pw then Natural White Pine

| | | | If > or = 30% Deciduous then Natural White Pine, Mixed Deciduous

| | | | Else Natural White Pine

| | | | Else if > or = 60% Pr then Natural Red Pine

| | | | If > or = 30% Deciduous then Natural Red Pine, Mixed Deciduous

| | | | Else Natural Red Pine

| | | | Else if > or = 60% Pj then Natural Jack Pine

| | | | If > or = 30% Deciduous then Natural Jack Pine, Mixed Deciduous

| | | | Else Natural Jack Pine

| | | | If > or = 30% Deciduous then Natural Mixed Pine, Mixed Deciduous

| | | | | Else Natural Mixed Pine


| | Else if >or=60% other upland conifers then

Non-Pine Upland Conifers (Other UplandConifers) - 423

| | | If Plantation then Planted

| | | | If > or = 60% L then Planted Larch

| | | | If > or = 20% Deciduous then Planted Larch, Mixed Deciduous

| | | | Else Planted Larch

| | | | Else if > or = 60% S then Planted Spruce

| | | | If > or = 20% Deciduous then Planted Spruce, Mixed Deciduous

| | | | Else Planted Spruce

| | | Else Non-planted

| | | | If > or = 50% H then Upland Hemlock

| | | | Else if > or = 60% S then Upland Spruce

| | | | Else if > or = 60% F then Upland Fir

| | | | Else if > or = 60% (S + F) then Upland Spruce/Fir

| | | | Else if > or = 60% C then Upland Cedar

| | | | If > or = 20% A then Upland Cedar, Aspen

| | | | Else Upland Cedar

| | | | If > or = 30% Deciduous then

Non-Pine Upland Conifer, Mixed Deciduous

| | | | Else Mixed Non-Pine Upland Conifers

| | Else Mixed Upland Conifers - 429

| Else Upland Mixed Forest - 43

| | If > or = 40% (H) then assume Hemlock, Mixed Deciduous

| | If > or = 70% (P + O) then Pine, Oak Mix

| | If > or = 70% (P + A) then Pine, Aspen Mix

| | Else Mixed Upland Forest

Else if evidence of flooding during past 5 years or supporting lowland indicator plants Lowland Forest

| If > or = 60% of the tree canopy is deciduous then Lowland Deciduous Forest - 611

| | Else if > or = 20% Ce then Lowland Deciduous with Cedar

| | Else if > or = 20% Coniferous then Lowland Deciduous, Mixed Coniferous

| | Else if > or = 60% M then Lowland Maple

| | Else if > or = 60% O then Lowland Oak

| | Else if > or = 60% As then Lowland Ash

| | Else if > or = 60% Co then Cottonwood

| | Else if > or = 60% Bi then Lowland Birch

| | Else if > or = 40% (A + Pob) then Lowland Aspen/Balsam Poplar

| | | If A > or = Pob then Lowland Aspen

| | | Else Lowland Balsam Poplar

| | Else Mixed Lowland Deciduous Forest

| If > or = 60% of the tree canopy is coniferous then Lowland Coniferous Forest - 612

| | If > or = 50% Ce then Lowland Cedar

| | Else if > or = 50% T then Tamarack

| | Else if > or = 50% Sb then Black Spruce

| | Else if > or = 50% F then Lowland Fir

| | Else if > or = 50% (S + F) Lowland Spruce-Fir

| | Else if > or = 50% Pj then Lowland Jack Pine

| | Else if > or = 50% (Sb + Pj) then Lowland Black Spruce, Jack Pine

| | Else if > or = 50% P then Lowland Pine

| | Else if > or = 20% Deciduous then Lowland Coniferous, Mixed Deciduous

| | Else Mixed Coniferous Lowland Forest

| Else Lowland Mixed Forest - 613

| | If > or = 20% Ce then Mixed Lowland Forest with Cedar

| | If > or = 60% (Fb + A + Pob + M) then Fir, Aspen, Maple

| | Else if > or = 60% (H + Pw + M + Bi) then Hemlock, White Pine, Maple, Birch

| | Else Mixed Lowland Forest

End.

 


Additional Forest Class Divisions

Size Class

If > or = 30% of the trees have dbh > or = 10 then Log (code 3)

Else if > or =30% of the trees have dbh > or = 5 then Pole (code 2)

Else Sapling (code 1)

End.

 

Crown Cover Class

If crown cover > or = 75% high (code 3)

Else if crown cover > or = 50% medium (code 2)

Else low (code 1).

 

End.